บทนำ
พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ (Solar energy) คือพลังงานที่ได้จากดวงอาทิตย์ ซึ่งพลังงานนั้นจะมาจากแสงและความร้อน ในปัจจุบันมีการพัฒนาเทคโนโลยีต่าง ๆ เพื่อนำพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์มาประยุกต์ใช้ อาทิ การผลิตพลังงานไฟฟ้าจากพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ การผลิตความร้อนจากพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ การสร้างสถาปัตยกรรมอาคารหรือสิ่งก่อสร้างที่ประหยัดพลังงาน

สาขาที่เกี่ยวข้อง
วิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี สิ่งแวดล้อม วิศวกรรมศาสตร์ สถาปัตยกรรมศาสตร์

ขอบเขตที่ครอบคลุม
แหล่งทรัพยากร เทคโนโลยีพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ การใช้พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ การเก็บพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ การผลิตไฟฟ้า ระบบพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ อาคารและสิ่งก่อสร้าง

คำค้น
solar energy
Subject Specialist
Picture: Pakapun Panich

Pakapun Panich
Information Specialist
Tel: 022182930

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Books / Book Chapters

Control of Solar Energy Systems Restricted Resource Some full text available
ให้รายละเอียดเกี่ยวกับระบบพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ ปัญหาที่เกี่ยวกับการควบคุม และระบบการควบคุมสามารถช่วยเพิ่มประสิทธิภาพอย่างไร
ISBN: 978-0-85729-915-4 (Print) 978-0-85729-916-1 (Online)
DOI: 10.1007/978-0-85729-916-1
Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation Restricted Resource Some full text available
ความเป็นมาของเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์และวัสดุและเทคโนโลยีที่สำคัญ อธิบายการเดินทางตั้งแต่เซลล์ไปจนถึงตัวระบบ การใช้งานที่สำคัญ ส่วนประกอบและการพัฒนาของตลาด การพิจารณาถึงบทบาทของการผลิตไฟฟ้าจากแสงอาทิตย์ในระบบพลังงานในอนาคต
ISBN: 978-3-540-23676-4 (Print) 978-3-540-26628-0 (Online)
DOI: 10.1007/b137803
Solar Energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
การ peer-review จาก Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
ISBN: 978-1-4614-5805-0 (Print) 978-1-4614-5806-7 (Online)
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-5806-7
Solar Energy Engineering Restricted Resource Some full text available
รวบรวมทุกสาขาวิชาของวิศวกรรมพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ ตั้งแต่พื้นฐานจนถึงการวิจัยในระดับสูงสุด ผู้เขียนได้รวมหลายศาสตร์ เช่น เรื่องตัวกักเก็บความร้อน การทำน้ำร้อนด้วยพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ การทำความร้อนหรือความเย็นด้วยพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ กระบวนการทำความร้อนในอุตสาหกรรม การผลิตน้ำจืดจากน้ำทะเลด้วยแสงอาทิตย์ พลังงานไฟฟ้าแสงอาทิตย์ เป็นต้น
ISBN: 978-0-12-374501-9
Solar Energy Fundamentals and Modeling Techniques Restricted Resource Some full text available
นำเสนอวิธีการวัดเชิงปริมาณของจำนวนรังสีดวงอาทิตย์บนพื้นผิวโลก รวบรวมข้อมูลจากงานเขียนด้านวิทยาศาสตร์สิ่งแวดล้อมเกี่ยวกับบรรยากาศ งานวิจัยการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศ อุตุนิยมวิทยา วิศวกรรมศาสตร์ และพลังงานทดแทน
ISBN: 978-1-84800-133-6 (Print) 978-1-84800-134-3 (Online)
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84800-134-3
Solar Energy in the Winemaking Industry Restricted Resource Some full text available
มุมมองเกี่ยวกับโรงกลั่นไวน์ที่ใช้พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ อุตสาหกรรมการทำไว้และเทคโนโลยีที่ใช้ ให้รายละเอียดความต้องการในการใช้พลังงานในกระบวนการทำไวน์ ตั้งแต่การเก็บเกี่ยวจนถึงการบรรจุขวดและอื่น ๆ
ISBN: 978-0-85729-843-0 (Print) 978-0-85729-844-7 (Online)
DOI: 10.1007/978-0-85729-844-7
Solar Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment Restricted Resource Some full text available
เนื้อหาเกี่ยวกับแหล่งทรัพยากรแสงอาทิตย์ พื้นฐานทางวิศวกรรมด้านเทอร์โมไดนามิกส์และการถ่ายโอนความร้อน ระบบความร้อนและการใช้งานแสงอาทิตย์ เซลล์ผลิตไฟฟ้าจากแสงอาทิตย์ และอื่น ๆ
Print ISBN: 978-1-4200-7566-3
eBook ISBN: 978-1-4200-7567-0
Solar energy: technologies and the project delivery process for buildings
Print Location: 690.83704724 W177S
เนื้อหาเกี่ยวกับแหล่งทรัพยากรพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ การผลิตไฟฟ้าจากแสงอาทิตย์ การทำน้ำร้อนด้วยแสงอาทิตย์ การทำความร้อนหรือความเย็นด้วยแสงอาทิตย์ กรณีศึกษาของสิ่งก่อสร้างที่ใช้พลังงานจากแสงอาทิตย์
ISBN: 9781118139240

Journals / Magazines

Applied Solar Energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
Solar radiation, photovoltaics, and solar materials to direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy
ISSN: 0003-701X (Print) 1934-9424 (Online)
Solar Energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
Information of solar energy research, development, application, measurement, policy and indirect uses such as wind energy and biomass
ISSN: 0038-092X
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Restricted Resource Some full text available
Of particular interest are Solar Cells, Photothermal Devices, Photoelectrochemical and Photochemical Devices, Optical Properties of materials and Light Control
ISSN: 0927-0248

Articles

A comparative analysis of solar home system programmes in China, Laos, Mongolia and Papua New Guinea Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Solar home systems (SHS) can provide energy services to rural households more cost effectively than extending national grids, and without relying on polluting fuels such as kerosene, diesel and coal. This study explores four recent SHS programmes supported by the World Bank’s Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program in China, Laos, Mongolia and Papua New Guinea that budgeted $328.2 million to distribute a targeted 401,500 such systems to nomadic herders, fishers and teachers. It documents three approaches to promote such systems: a technology improvement and market development model, a cross-subsidization and energy service company model, and an end-user direct lending model. After explaining its primary methods of data collection – research interviews and in-country site visits – the study summarizes each programme before focusing on their benefits and implementation challenges. It then connects the successes and failures of these programs to broader lessons about energy development in general. The study finds that programmes dedicated to technology improvement, market development, cross-subsidization, and energy service companies met their targets, whereas the one programme based on end-user finance in Papua New Guinea performed poorly.
DOI: 10.1177/146499341201200404
A feasibility integrated approach in the promotion of solar house design Restricted Resource Some full text available
Summary: In many countries, although solar energy is plentiful, due to technical and economic issues, micro-scale solar energy technologies have not properly found their places in the market. The present work demonstrates the convenience of employing economic feasibility assessments together with engineering analyses before applying solar strategies during the design stages, in order to convince house owners that these solar technologies can be economically viable. In a case study, this approach is tested for a real house project developed in North Cyprus (NC) in which solar energy applications for electricity generation, hot water preparation, space heating and passive cooling are investigated. It is reported that grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems would be economically feasible with savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) values of 2.9 to 3.4. A thermal performance analysis is carried out for a thermal storage wall (TSW) together with a direct solar gain (DSG) window in the living room. It is discovered that the temperature range of the living room was within 18–22°C throughout the majority of winter days. This application is also proved to be economically feasible with an SIR of 1.3, compared to installing an 18,000 Btu/h heat pump. It is determined that both locally produced solar water heaters and imported solar water heaters (ISWHs) are economically viable compared to using a 3-kW storage-type electric water heater. Their SIR values are estimated to be 7.5 and 3.7, respectively. A solar-assisted stack-effect ventilation (SEV) system is verified to have techno-economic feasibility and is also useful in concealing the unattractive cold and hot water storage tanks on the roof. The prospective house owner decides to invest 3840 EUR in installing a grid-connected PV system of 1 kWp, an ISWH, a DSG window, building a TSW for space heating and a SEV system with an overall SIR value of 3.2. This procedure can be developed into a government policy where all these assessments are made mandatory to increase the awareness of the home builders before they make their decisions about the final designs of their houses.
The present work demonstrates the convenience of employing economic feasibility assessments together with engineering analyses before applying solar strategies during the design stages, in order to convince house owners that these solar technologies can be economically viable. In a case study, this approach is tested for a real house project developed in NC in which solar energy applications for electricity generation, hot water preparation, space heating and passive cooling are investigated.
DOI: 10.1002/er.3025
A new type of passive solar energy utilization technology—The wall implanted with heat pipes Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The heat transfer performance on the wall has a great influence on the energy conservation and the indoor thermal comfort. Once it can be adjustable according to the requirement, the wall can effectively regulate the indoor temperature, thereby directly reducing the building energy consumption. In this paper, a new type of passive solar energy utilization technology, the wall implanted with heat pipes (WIHP), was proposed, and its heat transfer performance and energy-saving characteristic were investigated theoretically and experimentally with the typical meteorological data of Jinan. The results indicate that the theoretical results agree well with experimental ones. The heat transfer performance of the WIHP is adjustable and controllable, which can reduce the heating load and improve thermal environment. During the winter in a typical year, the heat loss of the south external wall is reduced by 14.47%. Therefore, such a type of wall can apparently improve the indoor thermal environment, which can be popularized in engineering applications.
DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.08.016
A Novel Modeling of Molten-Salt Heat Storage Systems in Thermal Solar Power Plants Some full text available
Abstract: Many thermal solar power plants use thermal oil as heat transfer fluid, and molten salts as thermal energy storage. Oil absorbs energy from sun light, and transfers it to a water-steam cycle across heat exchangers, to be converted into electric energy by means of a turbogenerator, or to be stored in a thermal energy storage system so that it can be later transferred to the water-steam cycle. The complexity of these thermal solar plants is rather high, as they combine traditional engineering used in power stations (water-steam cycle) or petrochemical (oil piping), with the new solar (parabolic trough collector) and heat storage (molten salts) technologies. With the engineering of these plants being relatively new, regulation of the thermal energy storage system is currently achieved in manual or semiautomatic ways, controlling its variables with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) regulators. This makes the overall performance of these plants non optimal. This work focuses on energy storage systems based on molten salt, and defines a complete model of the process. By defining such a model, the ground for future research into optimal control methods will be established. The accuracy of the model will be determined by comparing the results it provides and those measured in the molten-salt heat storage system of an actual power plant.
DOI: 10.3390/en7106721
A Photocatalyst–Enzyme Coupled Artificial Photosynthesis System for Solar Energy in Production of Formic Acid from CO2 Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The photocatalyst–enzyme coupled system for artificial photosynthesis process is one of the most promising methods of solar energy conversion for the synthesis of organic chemicals or fuel. Here we report the synthesis of a novel graphene-based visible light active photocatalyst which covalently bonded the chromophore, such as multianthraquinone substituted porphyrin with the chemically converted graphene as a photocatalyst of the artificial photosynthesis system for an efficient photosynthetic production of formic acid from CO2. The results not only show a benchmark example of the graphene-based material used as a photocatalyst in general artificial photosynthesis but also the benchmark example of the selective production system of solar chemicals/solar fuel directly from CO2.
DOI: 10.1021/ja3009902
A review of Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) issues of solar energy system Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Solar energy is one of the cleanest forms of energy sources and considered as a green source of energy. Solar energy benefit ranges from low carbon emission, no fossil fuel requirement, long term solar resources, less payback time and other. However like other power generation sources, solar energy has also some Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) concerns. This paper presents the overview of solar energy technologies and addresses the SHE impact of solar energy technologies to the sustainability of human activities. This paper will also recommend the possible ways to reduce the effect of potential hazards of widespread use of solar energy technologies.
DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.08.086
A review on the applications of nanofluids in solar energy systems Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The negative impact of human activities on the environment receives tremendous attention, especially on the increased global temperature. To combat climate change, clean and sustainable energy sources need to be rapidly developed. Solar energy technology is considered as one of the ideal candidates, which directly converts solar energy into electricity and heat without any greenhouse gas emissions. In both areas, high-performance cooling, heating and electricity generation is one of the vital needs. Modern nanotechnology can produce metallic or nonmetallic particles of nanometer dimensions which have unique mechanical, optical, electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties. Studies in this field indicate that exploiting nanofluid in solar systems, offers unique advantages over conventional fluids. In this paper, the applications of nanofluids on different types of solar collectors, photovoltaic systems and solar thermoelectrics are reviewed. Beside the wide range of energy conversion, the efforts done on the energy storage system (ESS) have been reviewed. In the field of economics, nanotech reduces manufacturing costs as a result of using a low temperature process.
DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.020
A Simple Photocell To Demonstrate Solar Energy Using Benign Household Ingredients Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: A laboratory exercise for the construction of a dye-sensitized solar cell using everyday household and benign products has been developed. The simple and easy-to-assemble construction successfully demonstrates the conversion of solar energy to electrical energy. This project is intended for high school students as well as college students of chemistry, physics, or biology classes as an inexpensive hands-on exercise. A brief outline on basic measurements related to photovoltaic cell performance and its characterization is also presented, and approaches to use these concepts for demonstration are suggested.
DOI: 10.1021/ed3001232
An EROI-based analysis of renewable energy farms with storage Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Large renewable energy (RE) farms, such as wind or solar farms are usually sited in remote areas, far from the transmission grid which typically interconnects population centers. Thus, they need to be connected on expensive access lines (distribution feeders) with limited capacity. The excess of RE generation over line capacity is wasted; this is called curtailment. We study curtailment using the metric of energy return on investment (EROI), defined as the ratio of useful energy extracted from each unit of energy invested in creating the renewable energy generation system. Curtailment reduces EROI. It may appear that we can extract more energy from an RE farm and increase EROI by adding storage to the system, where this storage is charged during generation peaks and discharged during off-peak times. However, manufacturing the storage requires an energy investment, and, after a certain number of cycles of usage, the storage becomes non-functional. Thus, adding storage may actually decrease the EROI. In this work, we study the EROI for RE farms when used with several types of storage technologies. Unlike prior work that makes numerous simplifying assumptions, our work accounts for storage size and storage imperfections and uses actual traces of renewable power generation. We find that lithium-ion batteries increase the EROI of both wind and solar farms, unlike lead-acid batteries which generally decrease their EROI. We also show that increasing access line capacity to achieve a target EROI is much more expensive for solar farms than for wind farms.
DOI: 10.1145/2602044.2602064
Artificial Water Inflow Created by Solar Energy for Continuous Green Energy Production Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: This paper presents the artificial water inflow created by the photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal (ST) generator which pumps it into the upper water/energy storage of pump storage hydroelectric (PSH) for continuous green energy production. Formulas have been derived for the calculation of artificial water inflow created by the PV and ST generator, as well as the general formula for calculating the artificial water inflow created by solar energy and formulas for calculating the corresponding energy, all in order to assess the site location suitability for solar hydro system applications. In order to verify the obtained formulas, two sites were observed at typical climate areas, i.e. Mediterranean (Vis, 1575 kWh/m2y) and Continental (Osijek, 1262 kWh/m2y) climate of Croatia, and as expected, the PV generator provides more stable time series in both climates than the ST generator that creates high energy dissipation and therefore less reliable energy production, particularly in the areas with Continental climate. Compatibility analysis of natural and artificial water inflows, with the use of a small water reservoir, showed that the PV-PSH system can ensure a continuous supply of energy throughout the whole year, while winter energy shortages in the ST-PSH system can be solved by using a larger reservoir. The obtained results show that the integrated solar-hydro system is efficient and desirable in terms of achieving goals related to the increase of green energy production.
DOI: 10.1007/s11269-013-0289-0
Beyond solar radiation management – the strategic role of low-cost photovoltaics in solar energy production Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: This paper examines the role of renewable energy sources (RES), especially the sun, as a potential solution for solar radiation management concerns. It states how photovoltaic (PV), especially low-cost PV and other thin film technology, can be applied and what impact and share they can have on the European market – using the Cyprus market as an example of strategic implementation. The Energy Service of the Ministry of Energy, Commerce, Industry and Tourism currently reports a 7.5% share (as at end of 2012) of RES in overall final energy consumption and suggests ways in which that share can increase. In the near future, PVs will be the most significant electricity source if the cost per kWh produced is further reduced, as was proven recently during the award procedures for PV systems.
DOI: 10.1080/14786451.2013.854244
Concrete slab solar water heating system Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Renewable energy is the energy which comes from natural resources such as sun light, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat which are renewable(naturally replenished) Main types of renewable energies are wind power, solar energy, biomass, bio-fuel and geothermal energy. Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air Water heating by using conventional solar water heating system is known to everyone. It has many advantages like it can save electricity, fuel, increase utilization of solar energy and it is eco-friendly device. Still its use is very limited in India because of its high cost, high maintenance and low efficiency. In India about 70% of people are living in rural area and many of them cannot afford this costly conventional system. Understanding the requirement of these people, it is necessary to lower the cost of solar water heating system. Our main objective is to reduce the cost of solar water heating system, which could be affordable to common people. The main and most expensive part of the conventional solar water heating system is the solar panel, which consist of delicate evacuated tubes and glass packing. Instead of conventional panel, the present experiment uses a concrete slab imbibing a network of copper tubing as the solar heat collecting device. Metallic scrap and metal powder are also used while making the concrete slab to increase the heat conducting properties of the slab. The copper tubing network is so arranged that the heat collected by the sl- - ab is transferred to it in an efficient manner. A low cost tank for storage of hot water has been developed with a tank in tank model incorporating PUF insulation. Trials on the above equipment showed promising results. The temperature of water could be increased from 30°C to 60°C on the day of average sunshine with outdoor temperature at 33°C Replacing the solar panel with concrete slab resulted in a reduction in the cost of the solar water heating system by about 75% in comparison with the conventional solar water heating system. Concrete slab water heaters need not be a separate device. Any tilted surface to south direction of a building could be modified so that it could act as a solar collector.
DOI: 10.1109/CET.2011.6041486
Conversion of Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy into Chemical Energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: When a concentrated solar beam is irradiated to the ceramics such as Ni-ferrite, the high-energy flux in the range of 1500–2500 kW/m2 is absorbed by an excess Frenkel defect formation. This non-equilibrium state defect is generated not by heating at a low heating-rate (30 K/min), but by irradiating high flux energy of concentrated solar beam rapidly at a high heating rate (200 K/min). The defect can be spontaneously converted to chemical energy of a cation-excess spinel structure (reduced-oxide form) at the temperature around 1773 K. Thus, the O2 releasing reaction (α-O2 releasing reaction) proceeds in two-steps; (1) high flux energy of concentrated solar beam absorption by formation of the non-equilibrium Frenkel defect and (2) the O2 gas formation from the O2 in the Frenkel defect even in air atmosphere. The 2nd step proceeds without the solar radiation. We may say that the 1st step is light reaction, and 2nd step, dark reaction, just like in photosynthesis process.
DOI: 10.1007/s13280-012-0264-7
Design of a two-phase solar and fluid-based renewable energy system for residential use Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: This project explores the technical challenge of sustainability as it relates to solar energy production, storage, and consumption. The challenge is addressed through the design of a two-phase renewable energy system that can provide electrical energy during both day and night without the use of chemical batteries. “Phase One” is the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy using photovoltaic panels for both immediate supply to the household load and for storage in a fluid based system. “Phase Two” is the conversion of the stored potential energy back into electrical energy. Methods of energy storage evaluated include pumped-hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) and compressed-air energy storage (CAES). Mathematical models using typical energy efficiency values are first used to estimate system parameters such as reservoir volume and height or pressure requirements. Based on the results, components and the methods of energy storage for further evaluation are selected. A dynamic systems-level model is then used to estimate energy output and efficiency as a function of changing system parameters. This model is validated by simulating full-scale conditions using a fluid reservoir and a pump. PHES has been chosen as the method of energy storage based on a high-level analysis. Efficiency of the turbine-generator was experimentally found to be as high as about 32% but was shown to increase with increasing hydraulic head. This demonstrates that the system could be a viable replacement for conventional batteries in poor or remote locations, especially if local topography allows for low-cost installation of a raised water reservoir.
DOI: 10.1109/SIEDS.2014.6829917
Determination of the exploitable solar energy for electricity generation using the photovoltaic systems Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Solar energy technologies offer a clean and renewable energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. In the design and evaluation of solar energy, information on solar radiation at a given location is needed. The principal objective of this study is the determination of solar energy characteristics anywhere and anytime. Mathematical models are exploited to analyze the solar energy characteristics in Sfax, Tunisia. These models present an estimation of the Sun position according to the considered site, a determination of the recovered solar energy and an evaluation of the electric energy produced by a photovoltaic surface. A comparison between theoretical and measured values has been presented to validate the mathematical expressions. An analysis of the influence of the incline angle on the recovered solar energy quantity is achieved. We affirmed that the general optimal angle, for all year round, will be equal to the latitude angle of the considered site. For a better optimization, the optimal angle for every month has been determined. In addition, to present the conversion phenomenon of the solar energy in electricity, a study of the produced photovoltaic energy by four different types of panels is elaborated.
DOI: 10.1109/REVET.2012.6195246
Development of solar hydrogen energy for mobile robots Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Mobile robots have demonstrated their versatility in a wide range of applications and situations. However, they are limited due to their reliance on traditional energy sources such as electricity and petroleum which cannot always provide a convenient energy source in all situations. Moreover, in a more eco-conscious modern world, these energy sources, which require the burning of a fuel in order to generate the output of electricity, are increasingly being shunned in favour of cleaner alternative energy sources such as solar energy. This study seeks to demonstrate the viability of an alternative, renewable, energy source for the operation of mobile robots. For the purposes of this study, an Industrial Mobile Robot Platform (IMRP) was designed that would run on solar power making use of an array of photovoltaic panels. In order to overcome the limitations of solar power, which is dependent on the availability of sunshine and thus cannot provide a constant source of energy, an energy storage medium was employed making use of metal hydrides. The advantage of this medium is that it is able to store energy in the form of hydrogen produced from solar energy, thus providing a reliable and constant energy source to power the IMRP. The IMRP was fabricated to run on hydrogen fuel cells using a low-pressure metal hydride hydrogen storage system that can store more energy on board than current conventional energy storage methods. The results show that solar energy can indeed provide a viable renewable energy source to power IMRPs, and that its limitations due to solar being an inconstant energy source can be overcome by the use of energy storage materials in the form of metal hydrides that store energy produced from solar power, and thereby satisfying the constant demand for energy.
DOI: 10.1109/RoboMech.2013.6685485
Efficiency Limit of Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Collecting Devices Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: As a larger fraction of energy is based on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, technologies for energy storage and conversion is becoming increasingly important. Molecular solar thermal (MOST) is a concept for long-term storage of solar energy in molecules and release of the energy as heat with full regeneration of the initial materials. The process is inherently closed cycle and emission free. No assessment of the fundamental efficiency limits of the technology has been made. In this report, efficiency limits and fundamental factors for molecular design of molecular solar thermal systems are discussed. Maximum efficiencies and potential temperature gradients are estimated using a number of basic assumptions on desired storage lifetimes and energy losses. The predicted maximum solar energy conversion efficiency is 10.6% at a S1–S0 gap of 1.89 eV. At this S1–S0 gap, the stored energy is able to create temperature differences of ∼300 °C. Several existing systems have an energy storage density in line with the predicted maximum one but do so at larger than optimal S1–S0 gaps.
DOI: 10.1021/sc300107z
Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity Some full text available
Abstract: The Earth receives around 1000 W.m-2 of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.
DOI: 10.1186/2046-9063-10-4
Energy and exergy analysis of different solar air collector systems with natural convection Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: In this research work, mathematical models are presented for single and two-glass cover solar air collector systems with natural convection flow. These models are based on an analytical solution of energy balance equations for various elements of collectors. The results obtained from the present work and the experimental results of other researchers are in good agreement. The effects of a tin metal sheet suspended in the middle of the air channel, longitudinal fins with rectangular and triangular shapes, and depth and length variations of the channel on energy and exergy efficiencies of solar air collectors are also investigated. The results show that the collector with two-glass covers has a better performance than a single-glass collector, and it is analytically preferred by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The results also illustrate that the collectors with triangular fins are more efficient in terms of energy than those with rectangular fins.
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.08.028
Energy and exergy performance investigation of transcritical CO2-based Rankine cycle powered by solar energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: A comprehensive performance evaluation of a solar assisted transcritical CO2-based Rankine cycle system is made with exergy analysis method. The actual thermal data taken from the all-day experiment of the system are utilized to determine energy transfer and the exergy destructions in each component of the system. In addition, a hypothetical carbon dioxide expansion turbine is introduced, then two thermodynamic models for solar transcritical carbon dioxide Rankine cycles with a throttling valve (experiment) and with an expansion turbine have been established with exergy analysis method. The obtained results clearly show that solar collector contributes the largest share to system irreversibility and entropy generation in the all-day working state, and the exergy improvement potential of solar collector is the maximum in the working state. So this component should be the optimization design focus to improve system exergy effectiveness. For the cycle with the turbine, the energy efficiency and the entropy generation are not much higher than the cycle with throttling valve, but the exergy efficiency of the cycle with turbine is twice of the cycle with throttling valve. It provides more guidance when the transcritical CO2-based Rankine system is in a large-scale solar application.
DOI: 10.1007/s11431-012-4765-1
Fe-substituted indium thiospinels: New intermediate band semiconductors with better absorption of solar energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The indium thiospinels In2S3 and MgIn2S4 are promising host for the intermediated band (IB) photovoltaic materials due to their ideal band gap value. Here, the optical properties and electronic structure of Fe-doped In2S3 and MgIn2S4 have been investigated. All the Fe-substituted semiconductors exhibit two additional absorption bands at about 0.7 and 1.25 eV, respectively. The results of first-principles calculations revealed that the Fe substituted at the octahedral In site would introduce a partially filled IB into the band gap. Thanks to the formation of IB, the Fe-substituted semiconductors have the ability to absorb the photons with energies below the band gap. With the wide-spectrum absorption of solar energy, these materials possess potential applications in photovoltaic domain.
DOI: 10.1063/1.4808352
Flexible Hybrid Energy Cell for Simultaneously Harvesting Thermal, Mechanical, and Solar Energies Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO–poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
DOI: 10.1021/nn305247x
Fuzzy dispatching of solar energy in distribution system Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach for solar energy using in distribution system as distributed generation (DG) unit. A nonlinear fuzzy controller tunes the modulation index of PWM inverter to feed the load in the grid via photovoltaic arrays. The controller also dispatches two dc sources to control input of inverter. The proposed system controls the voltage even during changing sunlight voltage condition or unbalanced load. A low pass LC filter is linked to the output of voltage source converter to bypass switching harmonics. The evolutionary method based on fuzzy theory is used to determine the value of modulation index and disperse the sources from a fuzzy rule-based defined on load voltage error of the point of common coupling. This system gives a full flexibility to the grid to obtain power from the solar photovoltaic units depending on its cost and load requirement at any given time. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of performance of proposed method.
DOI: 10.3103/S0003701X11020113
Fuzzy sliding mode controller design for maximum power point tracking control of a solar energy system Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Because of the concern with the energy crisis, solar energy is considered one of the most promising alternatives to conventional energy sources, e.g. petroleum and coal, on account of its zero greenhouse gas emission. Accordingly, making solar cells operate at the maximum power point becomes a critical issue in such a field, for the reason that the cells provide a relatively low power output. Exhibiting non-linear I–V characteristics, solar cells are operated at varying operation points, resulting in an unstabilized output power. Aiming at the design of a sliding mode controller as well as the choice of a crucial gain kf made through fuzzy logic, this paper presents a maximum power tracking system as a way of reaching a maximum output power. The controller presented is then validated, through simulation and experiment, to provide a better response than a sliding mode controller in terms of the maximum power tracking performance.
DOI: 10.1177/0142331211407959
Global solar energy use and social viability in Malaysia Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Along with the enhancement of technology and alarming of global warming, various types of technologies are advanced worldwide nowadays to harness the energy from the sun such as solar thermal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, solar ponds, solar tower and photovoltaic systems to utilize the energy in the majority of domestic applications and industrial sector to a certain extent. Subsequently, gradual increase usage of solar energy requires creating awareness among public to protect the environment in term of green campaign which is one of the hot topics among the Malaysians where there are many organizations organizing green campaign such as Environmental Protection Society Malaysia (EPSM), Malaysia Environment NGOs (MENGO) and Treat Every Environment Special Sdn. Bhd. (TRESS). Therefore, this study examines solar energy production and consumption worldwide by looking at various existing solar technologies to have the understanding of each technology. This article also intends to catch up specifically the social viability of solar energy production and use, with the availability of the resources for the full scale development.
DOI: 10.1109/CET.2011.6041461
Green synthesis of symmetrical N, N′-disubstituted thiourea derivatives in water using solar energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Thioureas are of importance in medicinal chemistry due to their biological activities such as antituberculosis, anti-HIV, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiarrhythmic, fungicide, herbicides, rodenticides and as phenoloxidase enzymatic inhibitors. Treatment of primary and secondary amines with thiophosgene is the common method of making symmetrical disubstituted thioureas. However, this method is hazardous due to the toxic properties of thiophosgene. Here, we report a green, operationally simple approach for the synthesis of 1, 3-disubstituted thiourea derivatives in moderate to excellent yields of 57–99 %. We use primary amines and CS2 in water without any catalyst and solar thermal energy. This method is more environmentally benign and energy-saving compared with previously reported methods.
DOI: 10.1007/s10311-012-0394-y
Hierarchal Light-Harvesting Aggregates and Their Potential for Solar Energy Applications Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The tunable optical properties of self-assembled chromophores are exploited by photosynthetic organisms to optimize their ability to harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum. Similarly, the efficiency of solar photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical devices depends strongly on the coincidence of the absorption spectrum of the photoactive components with the spectrum of the sun. While the possibility of borrowing ideas about light-harvesting aggregates from nature in order to improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion is quite attractive, progress to date is hindered by incomplete understanding of aggregate internal structure and its relation to excitonic states. In this Perspective, we describe our recent work on the hierarchal structure of self-assembled porphyrin aggregates that are similar to light-harvesting complexes of photosynthetic bacteria. We address the question of whether aggregation can be beneficial to dye-sensitized solar energy conversion and present promising results for a solar cell based on an abundant plant pigment that displays signatures of aggregation when adsorbed on TiO2.
DOI: 10.1021/jz3000678
Impact of load variation on the energy and exergy efficiencies of a single vacuum tube based solar cooker Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: A single vacuum tube based solar cooker has high energy and exergy efficiency, and is capable of achieving cooking temperatures as high as 250 °C. The reason for high energy and exergy efficiencies of this solar cooker is the high achievable concentration ratios of 15–20, which are not possible with multiple vacuum tube based solar cookers. In this paper, a comparative study has been carried out to experimentally determine the impact of varying the load on the various performance measuring parameters. Five experiments have been carried out with 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 kg of respective water loads. Performance measuring parameters including the energy and exergy efficiencies, heat loss coefficient, quality factor, adjusted quality factor, peak exergy power, and peak exergy power to temperature difference gap product have been determined for each case. It is concluded that the performance measuring parameters have correlation with the load on the solar cooker. Performance parameters indicate average peak exergy power of 51.07 W, while the product of temperature difference gap at half power to that of peak exergy power is about 3000 W K. The highest value of the quality factor was found to be 0.0506 with 6 kg of water load.
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.12.021
Land-Use Efficiency of Big Solar Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: As utility-scale solar energy (USSE) systems increase in size and numbers globally, there is a growing interest in understanding environmental interactions between solar energy development and land-use decisions. Maximizing the efficient use of land for USSE is one of the major challenges in realizing the full potential of solar energy; however, the land-use efficiency (LUE; Wm–2) of USSE remains ambiguous. We quantified the capacity-based LUE of 183 USSE installations (>20 MW; planned, under construction, and operating) using California as a case study. In California, USSE installations are concentrated in the Central Valley and interior regions of southern California and have a LUE of 35.0 Wm–2. The installations occupy approximately 86 000 ha and more land is allocated for photovoltaic schemes (72 294 ha) than for concentrating solar power (13 604 ha). Photovoltaic installations are greater in abundance (93%) than concentrating solar power, but technology type and nameplate capacity has no impact on capacity-based LUE. More USSE installations are on private land (80%) and have a significantly greater LUE (35.8 Wm–2) than installations on public land (25.4 Wm–2). Our findings can be used to better understand and improve the LUE of USSE, thereby maximizing economic, energetic, and environmental returns on investments.
DOI: 10.1021/es4043726
Maximizing Quality of Coverage under Connectivity Constraints in Solar-Powered Active Wireless Sensor Networks Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Energy harvesting is a promising solution for reducing network maintenance and the overhead of replacing chemical batteries in sensor networks. In this article, problems related to controlling an active wireless sensor network comprised of nodes powered by both rechargeable batteries and solar energy are investigated. The objective of this control is to maximize the network's Quality of Coverage (QoC), defined as the minimum number of targets that can be covered by the network over a 24-hour period. Assuming a time-varying solar profile, the underlying problem is to optimally control the sensing range of each sensor so as to maximize the QoC. The problem is further constrained by requiring all active sensors to report any sensed data to a centralized base station, making connectivity a key factor in sensor management. Implicit in the solution is the allocation of solar energy during the day to sensing tasks and recharging of the battery so that a minimum coverage is guaranteed at all times. The problem turns out to be a nonlinear optimal control problem of high complexity. By exploiting the particular structure of the problem, we present a novel method for determining near-optimal sensing radii and routing paths as a series of quasiconvex (unimodal) optimization problems. The runtime of the proposed solution is 60X less than the standard optimal control method based on dynamic programming, while the worst-case error is less than 8%. The proposed method is scalable to large networks consisting of hundreds of sensors and targets. Several insights in the design of energy-harvesting networks are provided.
DOI: 10.1145/2594792
Modeling of Daily Solar Energy on a Horizontal Surface for Five Main Sites in Malaysia Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: This paper presents models for global and diffuse solar energy on a horizontal surface for main five sites in Malaysia. The global solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, fuzzy logic, and artificial neural network (ANN) models, while the diffuse solar energy is modeled using linear, nonlinear, and ANN models. Three statistical values are used to evaluate the developed solar energy models, namely, the mean absolute percentage error, MAPE; root mean square error, RMSE; and mean bias error, MBE. The results showed that the ANN models are superior compared with the other models in which the MAPE in calculating the global solar energy in Malaysia by the ANN model is 5.38%, while the MAPE for the linear, nonlinear, and fuzzy logic models are 8.13%, 6.93%, and 6.71%, respectively. The results for the diffuse solar energy showed that the MAPE of the ANN model is 1.53%, while the MAPE of the linear and nonlinear models are 4.35% and 3.74%, respectively. The accurate ANN models can therefore be used to predict solar energy in Malaysia and nearby regions.
DOI: 10.1080/15435075.2011.602156
Multi-objective optimization of a combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: This paper presented a multi-objective optimization of a combined cooling, heating and power system (CCHP) driven by solar energy. The flat-plate solar collector was employed to collect the solar radiation and to transform it into thermal energy. The thermal storage unit was installed to storage the thermal energy collected by the collectors to ensure a continuous energy supplement when solar energy was weak or insufficient. The CCHP system combined an organic Rankine cycle with an ejector refrigeration cycle to yield electricity and cold capacity to users. In order to conduct the optimization, the mathematical model of the solar-powered CCHP system was established. Owing to the limitation of the single-objective optimization, the multi-objective optimization of the system was carried out. Four key parameters, namely turbine inlet temperature, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature and pinch temperature difference in vapor generator, were selected as the decision variables to examine the performance of the overall system. Two objective functions, namely the average useful output and the total heat transfer area, were selected to maximize the average useful output and to minimize the total heat transfer area under the given conditions. NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm-II) was employed to achieve the final solutions in the multi-objective optimization of the system operating in three modes, namely power mode, combined heat and power (CHP) mode, and combined cooling and power (CCP) mode. For the power mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 6.40 kW and 46.16 m2. For the CCP mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 5.84 kW and 58.74 m2. For the CHP mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 8.89 kW and 38.78 m2. Results also indicated that the multi-objective optimization provided a more comprehensive solution set so that the optimum performance could be achieved according to different requirements for system.
DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2014.10.009
New method for applying solar energy in greenhouses to reduce fuel consumption Some full text available
Abstract: Renewable energies (especially solar energy) are globally suitable alternatives for fossil fuels. On the other hand, greenhouses, as a main part of agriculture industry, use a significant amount of fossil fuels annually to provide the required heat for the under-cultivation crops in the greenhouse. Currently this heat demand is provided by a heater which burns gas oil as its main fuel. The main problem with these heaters is fuel hyper-consumption. That is why feasibility of utilizing a solar energy storage system in greenhouses is studied here. As the low temperature heat is required for preheating the air in the greenhouse, a solar collector array is proposed to be utilized in order to displace heating demand of the heater and to reduce amount of fuel consumption. To evaluate the proposed system effectiveness, an economic survey has been done on the proposed system based on Net Present Value (NPV) method. The optimum capital cost for the project is found based on economic methods. The economic analysis showed that 85 flat plate collector modules and an 8.5 cubic meters of storage tank are optimum selection of the project. The results showed that, by employing the proposed system, 7 735 USD benefit as well as 11 050 litres of fuel providence is obtainable annually. Economic evaluation based on NPV method resulted in the payback period of ten years.
DOI: 10.3965/j.ijabe.20130604.008
Predicting solar radiation fluxes for solar energy system applications Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The mean daily global solar radiation flux is influenced by astronomical, climatological, geographical, geometrical, meteorological, and physical parameters. This paper deals with the study of the effects of influencing parameters on the mean daily global solar radiation flux, and also with the computation of the solar radiation flux at the surface of the earth in locations without solar radiation measurements. The reference–real data were borrowed from the Iranian Meteorological Organization. The analysis of data showed that the mean daily solar radiation flux on a horizontal surface is related to parameters such as: mean daily extraterrestrial solar radiation, average daily ratio of sunshine duration, mean daily relative humidity, mean daily maximum air temperature, mean daily maximum dew point temperature, mean daily atmospheric pressure, and sine of the solar declination angle. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were applied to predict the mean daily global solar radiation flux on a horizontal surface. The models were validated when compared with the reference–measured data of global solar radiation flux. The results showed that the models estimate the global solar radiation flux within a narrow relative error band. The values of mean bias errors and root mean square errors were within acceptable margins. The predicted values of global solar radiation flux by this approach can be used for the design and performance estimation in solar applications. The model can be used in areas where meteorological stations do not exist and information on solar radiation flux cannot be obtained experimentally.
DOI: 10.1007/s13762-013-0179-2
Pro-Energy: A novel energy prediction model for solar and wind energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Energy harvesting is one of the most promising technologies towards the goal of perpetual operation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Environmentally-powered systems, however, have to deal with the variable behavior of ambient energy sources, which results in different amounts and rates of energy available over time. To alleviate the problem of the harvested power being neither constant nor continuous, energy prediction methods can be employed. Such models forecast the source availability and estimate the expected energy intake, allowing the system to take critical decisions about the utilization of the available energy. In this work, we present a novel energy prediction model, named Pro-Energy (PROfile energy prediction model), for multi-source energy harvesting WSNs, which is able to leverage past energy observations to provide accurate estimations of future energy availability. To assess the performance of our proposed solution, we use real-life solar and wind traces that we collected by interfacing TelosB nodes with solar cells and wind micro-turbines, as well as public available traces of solar and wind obtained from weather monitoring stations in the US. A comparative performance evaluation between Pro-Energy and energy predictors previously proposed in the literature, such as EWMA and WCMA, has shown that our solution significantly outperforms existing algorithms for both short and medium term prediction horizons, improving the prediction accuracy up to 60%.
DOI: 10.1109/MASS.2012.6502504
Research progress of solar thermochemical energy storage Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Solar thermal power generation technology has great significance to alleviate global energy shortage and improve the environment. Solar energy must be stored to provide a continuous supply because of the intermittent and instability nature of solar energy. Thermochemical storage (TCS) is very attractive for high-temperature heat storage in the solar power generation because of its high energy density and negligible heat loss. To further understand and develop TCS systems, comprehensive analyses and studies are very necessary. The basic principle and main components of a solar TCS system are described in this paper. Besides, recent progress and existing problems of several promising reaction systems are introduced. Further research directions are pointed out considering the technical, economic, and environmental issues that existed in the wide application of TCS.
DOI: 10.1002/er.3259
SEED: solar energy-aware efficient scheduling for data centers Restricted Resource Some full text available
Summary: It is well known that data centers are consuming a large amount of energy that incurs significant financial and environmental costs. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in utilizing green energy for data centers, where green energy sources include solar and wind. This paper studies the crucial problem of maximizing the utilization of green energy through scheduling complex jobs in data centers in order to reduce the use of traditional brown energy. However, it is highly challenging for data centers to make use of green energy. First, the availability of typical green energy is variable to dynamic changes of natural environments, for example, weather. Second, although predictions can be made for the future availability of green energy, it is inevitable that such predictions have errors. Third, jobs are associated with strict deadlines, and it is required that jobs are completed before their deadlines. Finally, because the reliability in a data center relies upon temperature, the awareness of temperature should be taken into account while maximizing the green energy. In this paper, we consider online scheduling of jobs whose arrivals to the data center system dynamically. In addition, we explicitly take the power consumption of switches into account when scheduling jobs onto computing nodes. Two solar energy-aware algorithms called SEEDMin and SEEDMax have been proposed. Then, we extend SEED to RSEED with the awareness of reliability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, comprehensive simulations have been conducted, and the proposed algorithms are compared with other state-of-art algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate that both SEEDMin and SEEDMax can significantly increase the utilization of solar energy without violating job deadlines and overall energy budget. The amount of solar energy utilized by SEEDMin and SEEDMax is 33.4%and35.3% larger than that of two traditional scheduling algorithms, MinMin and MinMax, respectively. Also, it can be seen that RSEED greatly improves the reliability by decreasing the temperature.
DOI: 10.1002/cpe.3179
Sharing renewable energy in smart microgrids Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Renewable energy harvested from the environment is an attractive option for providing green energy to homes. Unfortunately, the intermittent nature of renewable energy results in a mismatch between when these sources generate energy and when homes demand it. This mismatch reduces the efficiency of using harvested energy by either i) requiring batteries to store surplus energy, which typically incurs ~20% energy conversion losses; or ii) using net metering to transmit surplus energy via the electric grid's AC lines, which severely limits the maximum percentage of possible renewable penetration. In this paper, we propose an alternative structure wherein nearby homes explicitly share energy with each other to balance local energy harvesting and demand in microgrids. We develop a novel energy sharing approach to determine which homes should share energy, and when, to minimize system-wide efficiency losses. We evaluate our approach in simulation using real traces of solar energy harvesting and home consumption data from a deployment in Amherst, MA. We show that our system i) reduces the energy loss on the AC line by 60% without requiring large batteries, ii) scales up performance with larger battery capacities, and iii) is robust to changes in microgrid topology.
Solar energy in food processing—a critical appraisal Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Increasing population and high cost of fuels have created opportunities for using alternate energies for post-harvest processing of foods. Solar food processing is an emerging technology that provides good quality foods at low or no additional fuel costs. A number of solar dryers, collectors and concentrators are currently being used for various steps in food processing and value addition. Society for Energy, Environment and Development (SEED) developed Solar Cabinet Dryer with forced circulation which has been used for dehydration and development of value added products from locally grown fruits, vegetables, leafy greens and forest produce. Drying under simulated shade conditions using UV-reducing Blue filter helps retain nutrients better. Its simple design and ease of handling makes SEED Solar Dryer an ideal choice for application of food processing in rural settings, closer to where the harvest is produced, eliminating the need for expensive transportation or storage of fresh produce. It also creates employment opportunities among the rural population, especially women. Other gadgets based on solar collectors and concentrators currently being used at various steps of food processing are reviewed.
DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0739-3
Solar Energy Storage Methods Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Solar energy can provide an abundant source of renewable energy (electrical and thermal). However, because of its unsteady nature, the storage of solar energy will become critical when a significant portion of the total energy will be provided by solar energy. In this paper, current solar energy storage technologies are reviewed. Storage methods can be classified into categories according to capacity and discharge time. New developments in solar energy storage require advances in chemical engineering and materials science. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an important tool to evaluate energy consumption and environmental impact of renewable energy processes. LCAs of some of the storage methods are reviewed. It is important to note that, while using renewable energy sources such as solar power, storage methods based on nonrecyclable materials or methods that consume significant amounts of energy may undermine the effort to reduce energy consumption.
DOI: 10.1021/ie2003413
Solar energy, bad weather days, and the temporalities of slower homes Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Solar energy harnessed through photovoltaic panels powers the greatest majority of the domestic electricity needs of off-grid homes. Solar energy can be rather easily stored in batteries; however, the cost of battery banks and the need to limit draining these batteries to increase their life, means that solar-powered home dwellers need to carefully monitor their energy consumption and reduce electricity use when solar energy becomes scarce. So what happens during fall and winter months when cloudy skies and long dark days make solar energy scarce? Drawing from ethnographic research with Canadian off-grid homeowners, this paper examines the everyday ways in which off-gridders adapt to seasonal darkness. Ethnographic data show how people’s diurnal and seasonal rhythms change in accordance with available sunlight and therefore more broadly how people’s relationships with place are shaped by changing temporalities of light and darkness. Focusing in particular on the alternative domestic technologies off-gridders use to reduce wattage consumption (e.g. LED televisions, DC lights, non-use of heat-producing appliances, use of manually-operated tools) and juxtaposing their lifestyles with domestic practices of the past this paper argues that off-gridders challenge the speed, light, and power assemblages of modernity, by cultivating slower rhythms and power self-sufficiency.
DOI: 10.1177/1474474013516406
Solar Heating & Cooling Energy Mixes to Transform Low Energy Buildings in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings Some full text available
Abstract: Nearly Zero Energy Building will be a mandatory status for all new buildings constructed after 31st December 2020 for European member states. This implies that, beside energy efficiency at the level of Low Energy Buildings, systems based on renewable energy sources must be implemented to provide energy savings and environmental benefits for space conditioning and water heating. Focusing on solar heating and cooling renewable-based systems, the paper presents an analysis aiming at identifying an optimal energy mix to reach the Nearly Zero Energy status for Low Energy Buildings, by evaluating and comparing the economic efficiency at current costs. A case study with experimental validation is done for a new R&D Laboratory building. The analysis is done considering functional and economic issues.
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.02.106
SOLAR INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM FOR GREEN BUILDING Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Green building is a kind of sustainable development and energy-saving building, has a very important significance for alleviating strained resources, protecting the environment to reduce pollution. And the solar energy is not only an energy, and a renewable energy, but which rich in resources. It not only free use of, but also not to be transported, and it produces no pollution to environment and more widely using in the green building. Early, solar building just passed the light and heat of the Sun in order to light up and heat the building. But now, the green building obtains solar energy by adopting 'active'. This 'active' green building is a kind of heating system consists of solar energy collector, radiator, pump and fan, or air conditioning-building combined with absorption chiller. One of the green building which is Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science contain multiple green energy technologies, such as solar thermal technology, solar photovoltaic, natural ventilation, natural lighting, and indoor virescence. Here, there an example of solar integrated energy system including heating, air conditioning, natural ventilation and hot water supplied which applied in the green building.
Solar radio bursts and acceleration of solar energy particles Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The correlation between the proton flux intensity I p with the energies E p > 1−100 MeV and radio burst parameters for 107 solar energetic events is considered using the observation data for 1989–2005 obtained with GOES and Wind satellites, as well as the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It has been revealed that 73 and 77% of the events were accompanied by type-II radio bursts in the meter (m II, 25–299 MHz) and the decameter-hectometer (DH II, 20 kHz–14 MHz) wavelength ranges, respectively. The correlation coefficient between I p and the frequency drift velocity of the type-II bursts V II did not exceed 0.40. As V II increased, the intensity of I p increased for the m-II bursts and decreased for the DH-II bursts. Coronal shock waves accelerate protons more efficiently than interplanetary waves, and their contribution to acceleration increases with an increase in the particle energy E p . The acceleration of solar energetic particles in the region of the flare energy release is predominant.
DOI: 10.3103/S0190271712010238
Sun power Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The rapidly growing solar and wind energy programmes in India have created a techno-economic opportunity in the energy market. Apart from the possibility of providing the much-needed energy solution to our citizens, the promise to young academicians and workforce is significant in the new clean energy sector. All these have happened in the last four to five years and, if the country were to take the National Solar Mission initiative forward, developments in solar photovoltaic power generation are likely to realize grid parity within the next few years and mitigate the energy deficiency to a great extent.
The effect of the type of illumination on the energy harvesting performance of solar cells Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: This paper presents the effect of the illumination type on the performance of photovoltaic energy harvesting for application in buildings. A range of different types of solar cells are available to suit differing illumination sources and intensities. Modules made from polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon and dye-sensitized TiO2 were investigated under illumination from incandescent, fluorescent, white light LED and RGB colour-controllable LED light sources in this paper. It is shown that it is important to select the solar cell to suit the type of light. In this paper, the maximum power points of four types of solar cell have been investigated under three different electrical light sources for various illumination levels allowing the selection of the optimum solar cell type for a given combination of electrical light source and a particular illumination level. An analysis of the effect of varying the spectral composition of the illumination is achieved by using a colour-controllable LED to provide the primary colours of white light. Generally, most power is harvested by solar cells under incandescent illumination sources followed by compact fluorescent (CFL) and then LED. The amorphous-Si solar cells tested show a similar power output under all three illumination sources, therefore a device using these should perform consistently under all lighting sources, whereas the poly-crystalline silicon solar cell tested shows a significant difference between incandescent and CFL/white light LED sources which could restrict operation to just incandescent lighting.
DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2014.10.024
The global solar and wind atlas: a unique global spatial data infrastructure for all renewable energy Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: The Global Solar and Wind Atlas (GA) is a unique Global Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI) that aims to connect and bring together in a common platform the major databases and information sources around the world in the field of solar and wind energy. The initiative will be expanded to encompass all renewable energies by 2015, and will be the largest information source on renewable energy potentials ever created. It has been developed under the umbrella of the Global Atlas initiative led by IRENA in partnership with the Clean Energy Ministerial. The GSDI is based on open standards and open source and composed by fundamental datasets, a geospatial catalogue and a Web based GIS Interface. The GIS interface provides a way of interaction between users and the other components, including spatial data and tools. The GIS allows users to identify opportunity areas for renewable energy development by searching and loading data listed by the catalogue, overlaying information, and computing locally the technical potential of renewable energy. In this demonstration we aim to show the GA infrastructure and how users can interact with all the different modules with emphasis on the GIS interface.
DOI: 10.1145/2534931.2534933
The Solar Collector Calculation in Integrative Solar Architecture Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Energy is an important material foundation of the economical and social development. Building energy consumption has become an important part of the total social energy consumption. Develop and use renewable energy is importance for building energy efficiency and many countries made clear renewable energy development goals in the world. China is actively promoting Integrative Solar Architecture, solar heating and solar hot water systems are important part. In China, solar radiation is large in summer and only solar water heating needed, solar collector area need small. In winter, both solar hot water and solar heating needed, but the solar radiation is smaller, so the solar collector areas have multiplied. The relevant norms and the manual give the methods for calculation solar collector areas for solar heating and solar water heating used alone. But they did not give the method of how to calculation the solar collector areas when the solar hot water and solar heating used at the same time. This paper combination of meteorological parameters, simulates the typical architectural which use solar heating and solar hot water at the same time, and gives the method of calculation solar collector area.
DOI: 10.1109/CDCIEM.2011.450
Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater Restricted Resource Some full text available
Abstract: Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 μm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 °C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 °C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m2hr, indicating system feasibility.
DOI: 10.1007/s11814-013-0250-1

Theses / Dissertations

Photophysics of Bio-Inspired Solar Energy Conversion Restricted Resource Some full text available
Ph.D., Chemistry, Arizona State University, 2014
Abstract: Increased global demand for energy has led to prolific use of fossil fuels, which produce and release greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. This increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide affects the global weather system and has been cited as a cause for global warming. For humans to continue to meet demands for energy while reducing greenhouse emission, a sustainable, carbon-neutral energy source must be developed. The sun provides energy for the majority of life on earth, as well as the energy stored in the chemical bonds of fossil fuels. This dissertation investigates systems inspired by the biological mechanism of solar energy capture and storage. In natural photosynthesis, organisms use chlorophyll as a chromophore to absorb the sun's energy. Bio-inspired systems use close analogues like porphyrins and phthalocyanines. In this dissertation, a soluble, semiconducting porphyrin is reported. The polymer was synthesized via a Buchwald-Hartwig style coupling of porphyrin monomers which produced a polyaniline-like chain with porphyrins incorporated into the backbone. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies were performed, which show evidence of excited state charge transfer and a first oxidation state of 0.58 V (vs SCE). These properties suggest that the polymer could be involved in excited state electron donation to fullerenes and other electron acceptors, which could be beneficial in organic photovoltaics, sensors, and other applications. Molecular dyads and triads capable of charge separation have been studied for decades, and the spectroscopic properties of two novel systems are reported in this dissertation. A peripherally-connected zinc-phthalocyanine-C60 dyad was studied, and showed excited state electron transfer from the phthalocyanine excited state to the C60, with a long-lived charge separated state. An axially-linked carotene-Si-pthalocyanine-C60 triad was studied, showing excited state electron transfer from the phthalocyanine to the C60, but fast recombination before hole transfer can occur to the carotene. Analogues of the electron transport mechanisms used in many biological systems use iron-sulfur clusters to shuttle electrons from donors to acceptors. In this dissertation, the spectroscopic properties of a de novo protein were studied. Nanosecond transient absorption was used to characterize the electron and energy transfer of an excited water-soluble porphyrin to the oxidized [FeS] clusters incorporated in the de novo protein. The triplet state of the porphyrin was strongly quenched with the holo-protein without a rise in porphyrin plus signal, suggesting that only Dexter-type energy transfer occurs between the sensitized porphyrin and the [FeS] clusters.
Photovoltaic concentrator optical system design: Solar energy engineering from physics to field Restricted Resource Some full text available
Ph.D., Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 2014
Abstract: This dissertation describes the design, development, and field validation of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) solar energy system. The challenges of creating a highly efficient yet low-cost system architecture come from many sources. The solid-state physics of photovoltaic devices present fundamental limits to photoelectron conversion efficiency, while the electrical and thermal characteristics of widely available materials limit the design arena. Furthermore, the need for high solar spectral throughput, evenly concentrated sunlight, and tolerance to off-axis pointing places strict illumination requirements on the optical design. To be commercially viable, the cost associated with all components must be minimized so that when taken together, the absolute installed cost of the system in kWh is lower than any other solar energy method, and competitive with fossil fuel power generation.
The work detailed herein focuses specifically on unique optical design and illumination concepts discovered when developing a viable commercial CPV system. By designing from the ground up with the fundamental physics of photovoltaic devices and the required system tolerances in mind, a select range of optical designs are determined and modeled. Component cost analysis, assembly effort, and development time frame further influence design choices to arrive at a final optical system design.
When coupled with the collecting mirror, the final optical hardware unit placed at the focus generates more than 800W, yet is small and lightweight enough to hold in your hand. After fabrication and installation, the completed system's illumination, spectral, and thermal performance is validated with on-sun operational testing.
Synthesis of nano-sized zinc sulfide and its application in solar concentrator Some full text available
การสังเคราะห์สารแขวนลอยของซิงค์ซัลไฟด์ขนาดนาโนและการประยุกต์ใช้ในตัวรวบรวมพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์
Thesis (Master of Engineering) Chulalongkorn University 2012
Abstract: ซิงค์ซัลไฟด์เป็นอนุภาคนาโนที่สามารถใช้เป็นวัสดุประกอบร่วมแบบนาโนซึ่ง สามารถประยุกต์ใช้งานกับตัวรวบรวมแสงอาทิตย์ซึ่งเป็นอุปกรณ์สำคัญสำหรับ เซลล์แสงอาทิตย์ ในงานวิจัยนี้ได้ทำการสังเคราะห์อนุภานนาโนซิงค์ซัลไฟด์โดยใช้วิธีรีเวิร์ส ไมเซลล์ในการควบคุมขนาดของอนุภาค อัตราส่วนของน้ำต่อสารลดแรงตึงผิว และความเข้มข้นของสารตั้งต้นที่ใช้ในการเกิดอนุภาคนาโน เป็นตัวแปรสำคัญที่ใช้ในการควบคุมขนาดของอนุภาคที่ได้ ซึ่งถูกนำไปวิเคราะห์โดยเทคนิคการวัดความเป็นผลึก (XRD), การถ่ายภาพโดยอิเล็คตรอนแบบส่องผ่าน (TEM), การถ่ายภาพอิเล็กตรอนแบบส่องกราด (SEM), และการวัดค่าความเรืองแสง (PL) พบว่าขนาดของอนุภาคนาโนซิงค์ซัลไฟด์มีผลกับค่าความเรืองแสง นอกจากนี้อนุภาคนาโนยังนำไปประยุกต์ใช้กับวัสดุนำแสงพอลิเมทิลเมธาคีเลต (PMMA) พบว่า ขนาดอนุภาคนาโนที่แตกต่างกันส่งผลต่อค่าความเรืองแสง และส่งผลต่อความสามารถในการเป็นตัวรวบรวมแสงเมื่อประยุกต์ใช้งานร่วมกับ เซลล์แสงอาทิตย์
Thermal Assessment of a Latent-Heat Energy Storage Module During Melting and Freezing for Solar Energy Applications Restricted Resource Some full text available
Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 2014
Abstract: Capital investment reduction, exergetic efficiency improvement and material compatibility issues have been identified as the primary techno-economic challenges associated, with the near-term development and deployment of thermal energy storage (TES) in commercial-scale concentrating solar power plants. Three TES techniques have gained attention in the solar energy research community as possible candidates to reduce the cost of solar-generated electricity, namely (1) sensible heat storage, (2) latent heat (tank filled with phase change materials (PCMs) or encapsulated PCMs packed in a vessel) and (3) thermochemical storage. Among these the PCM macro-encapsulation approach seems to be one of the most-promising methods because of its potential to develop more effective energy exchange, reduce the cost associated with the tank and increase the exergetic efficiency. However, the technological barriers to this approach arise from the encapsulation techniques used to create a durable capsule, as well as an assessment of the fundamental thermal energy transport mechanisms during the phase change.
A comprehensive study of the energy exchange interactions and induced fluid flow during melting and solidification of a confined storage medium is reported in this investigation from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis has been placed on the thermal characterization of a single constituent storage module rather than an entire storage system, in order to, precisely capture the energy exchange contributions of all the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms during the phase change processes. Two-dimensional, axisymmetric, transient equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation have been solved numerically by the finite volume scheme.
Initially, the interaction between conduction and natural convection energy transport modes, in the absence of thermal radiation, is investigated for solar power applications at temperatures (300-400°C). Later, participating thermal radiation within the storage medium has been included in order to extend the conventional natural convection-dominated model and to analyze its influence on the melting and freezing dynamics at elevated temperatures (800-850°C). A parametric analysis has been performed in order to ascertain the effects of the controlling parameters on the melting/freezing rates and the total and radiative heat transfer rates at the inner surface of the shell. The results show that the presence of thermal radiation enhances the melting and solidification processes.
Finally, a simplified model of the packed bed heat exchanger with multiple spherical capsules filled with the storage medium and positioned in a vertical array inside a cylindrical container is analyzed and numerically solved. The influence of the inlet mass flow rate, inner shell surface emissivity and PCM attenuation coefficient on the melting dynamics of the PCM has been analyzed and quantified.
การปรับปรุงประสิทธิภาพของเซลล์พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ชนิดสีย้อมไวแสงโดยใช้ท่อนาโนคาร์บอนแบบผนังหลายชั้นร่วมกับแผ่นทองคำเปลว Some full text available
Improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells efficiency using multi-walled carbon nanotubes composited with gold leaf
วิทยานิพนธ์ (วิศวกรรมศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต) จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย 2555
Abstract: ปัจจุบันเซลล์พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ชนิดสีย้อมไวแสง (Dye-sensitized solar cells: DSSCs) ได้รับความสนใจเป็นอย่างมากในด้านของพลังงานทดแทนจากแสงอาทิตย์ เนื่องจากการประกอบที่ง่าย ค่าประสิทธิภาพที่ดีพอสมควร และต้นทุนในการผลิตต่ำ ในงานวิจัยนี้วัสดุขั้วอิเล็กโทรดของเซลล์พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ชนิดสีย้อมไวแสง ถูกผสมด้วยท่อนาโนคาร์บอนแบบผนังหลายชั้น (Multi-walled carbon nanotubes: MWCNTs) และแผ่นทองคำเปลว โดยทั่วไปเซลล์พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ชนิดสีย้อมไวแสงจะใช้ไททาเนียมไดออกไซด์ เชิงพาณิชย์ (P25) เป็นวัสดุขั้วอิเล็กโทรด และเมื่อนำไปทดสอบด้วยเครื่องวัดประสิทธิภาพเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์ (I-V tester) ให้ค่าประสิทธิภาพเท่ากับ 5.43% เนื่องจากท่อนาโนคาร์บอนแบบผนังหลายชั้นและแผ่นทองคำเปลวมีคุณสมบัติในการ เป็นตัวนำไฟฟ้าที่ดี จึงถูกนำมาใช้ในการเตรียมวัสดุขั้วอิเล็กโทรด เพื่อเพิ่มประสิทธิภาพให้กับเซลล์พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ชนิดสีย้อมไวแสง ซึ่งการเตรียมวัสดุขั้วอิเล็กโทรดจะถูกศึกษาอย่างเป็นระบบเพื่อหาสภาวะที่ เหมาะสมสำหรับค่าประสิทธิภาพที่ดีที่สุด จากการศึกษาพบว่าท่อนาโนคาร์บอนแบบผนังหลายชั้นและแผ่นทองคำเปลวช่วยเพิ่ม ประสิทธิภาพให้กับเซลล์พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ชนิดสีย้อมไวแสงได้ โดยค่ากระแสไฟฟ้าลัดวงจร (Short-circuit current) เท่ากับ 13.98 mA/cm2 และ 12.82 mA/cm2 ตามลำดับ และให้ค่าประสิทธิภาพ (ɳ) เท่ากับ 7.01% และ 6.48% ตามลำดับ
การหาขนาดที่เหมาะสมของแบตเตอรี่ ในระบบการผลิตไฟฟ้าเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์เมื่อพิจารณาถึงการแกว่งของกำลังไฟฟ้าและความถี่ Some full text available
Determining optimal battery capacity of grid-connected photovoltaic system with power and frequency fluctuation consideration
วิทยานิพนธ์ (วิศวกรรมศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต) จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย 2555
Abstract: พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์เป็นพลังงานหมุนเวียนที่ได้รับความสนใจในการนำมาผลิตไฟฟ้า แต่ปัญหาใหญ่ที่พบจากการผลิตไฟฟ้าด้วยพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ด้วยเทคโนโลยีเซลล์ แสงอาทิตย์ คือ กำลังไฟฟ้า แรงดันไฟฟ้า และความถี่ทางไฟฟ้าที่ได้จะมีค่าไม่คงที่เนื่องจากความไม่แน่นอนของความเข้ม แสงอาทิตย์และอุณหภูมิสิ่งแวดล้อม ซึ่งส่งผลให้เกิดปัญหาคุณภาพไฟฟ้าและเสถียรภาพของไฟฟ้า ทั้งนี้ปัญหาดังกล่าวสามารถแก้ไขได้โดย การติดตั้งแบตเตอรี่เข้ากับระบบผลิตไฟฟ้าเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์ เพื่อให้แบตเตอรี่รับกำลังไฟฟ้าส่วนเกิน เมื่อระบบผลิตไฟฟ้าเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์ผลิตกำลังไฟฟ้าเกินความต้องการ และให้แบตเตอรี่จ่ายกำลังไฟฟ้าชดเชย เมื่อระบบผลิตไฟฟ้าเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์ผลิตกำลังไฟฟ้าน้อยกว่าความต้องการ อย่างไรก็ดี สิ่งสำคัญที่ต้องคำนึงถึงในการติดตั้งแบตเตอรี่ คือ ขนาดของแบตเตอรี่จะต้องมีความเหมาะสมกับกำลังการผลิต ซึ่งจะทำให้แบตเตอรี่สามารถลดการแกว่งของกำลังไฟฟ้า และช่วยควบคุมต้นทุนในการผลิตไฟฟ้าไม่ให้สูงเกินความจำเป็น วิทยานิพนธ์ฉบับนี้นำเสนอวิธีการคำนวณหาขนาดของแบตเตอรี่ที่เหมาะสม เพื่อช่วยแก้ปัญหาการแกว่งของกำลังไฟฟ้าและความถี่ โดยในขั้นตอนการวิเคราะห์ จะเริ่มจากการจำลองความเข้มแสงอาทิตย์ที่กระทบแผงเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์และ อุณหภูมิสิ่งแวดล้อมของแผงเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์ในแต่ละชั่วโมงซึ่งรวมผลของความ ไม่แน่นอนด้วยแบบจำลองที่เหมาะสม และคำนวณกำลังไฟฟ้า แรงดันไฟฟ้า และความถี่ทางไฟฟ้า ผ่านแบบจำลองทางคณิตศาสตร์ของระบบผลิตไฟฟ้าเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์ที่เชื่อมต่อกับ โครงข่าย โดยใช้วิธีการติดตามกำลังไฟฟ้าสูงสุด ในส่วนของแบตเตอรี่นั้นจะใช้แบบจำลองทางคณิตศาสตร์ของแบตเตอรี่ชนิดกรด ตะกั่ว ร่วมกับวิธีการเชิงเลขเพื่อคำนวณหาขนาดของแบตเตอรี่ที่เหมาะสม โดยจะเลือกใช้ขนาดแบตเตอรี่จากข้อมูลจริงของบริษัทผู้ผลิต วิธีการที่นำเสนอนี้ได้ถูกทดสอบกับระบบทดสอบที่กำหนดขึ้น ซึ่งผลจากการทดสอบพบว่าเป็นที่น่าพอใจ
สมรรถนะของรางรับแสงอาทิตย์แบบพาราโบลาที่ใช้การไหลแบบบังคับ Some full text available
Performance of parabolic trough using forced flow
วิทยานิพนธ์ (วิทยาศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต) จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย 2554
Abstract: รางพาราโบลาแบบดั้งเดิมได้รับการปรับปรุงประสิทธิภาพโดยการออกแบบบนวัตกรรม ใหม่ของรางพาราโบลาร่วมกับหลอดรับรังสีแบบสุญญากาศ โดยมีเป้าหมายหลัก 3 ประการ คือ ประการแรก สามารถรับแสงอาทิตย์ในช่วงเวลากลางวันได้ยาวนาน โดยไม่ต้องอาศัยระบบติดตามดวงอาทิตย์ ประการที่สอง แผงรับแสงอาทิตย์ออกแบบให้ทำงานภายใต้สภาวะที่มีรังสีกระจายได้อย่างมี ประสิทธิภาพ และประการที่สาม สามารถทำอุณหภูมิสูง ซึ่งแผงรับแสงอาทิตย์ที่พัฒนาขึ้นมาใหม่ประกอบด้วยรางพาราโบลาที่มีจุดโฟกัส ต่ำหลายราง ทำมุมในทิศทางต่างๆกัน คุณสมบัติเด่นของการออกแบบนี้ก็คือแผงรับแสงสามารถรับพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ได้ ในมุมต่างๆ ได้โดยไม่มีชิ้นส่วนเคลื่อนไหวในระบบในขณะเดียวกันยังสามารถรับรังสีกระจาย ได้ ประสิทธิภาพสูงสุดของรางรับแสงมีค่า 51.23% ที่ความเข้มแสง 779.50 วัตต์ต่อตารางเมตร และประสิทธิภาพสูงสุดของระบบมีค่า 31.38% ที่ความเข้มแสง 526.43 วัตต์ต่อตารางเมตร

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Encyclopedias

สารานุกรมพลังงานทดแทน Alternative Energy Encyclopedia
รวบรวมข้อมูลพลังงานทดแทนทุกด้าน โดยกรมพัฒนาพลังงานทดแทนและอนุรักษ์พลังงาน กระทรวงพลังงาน
ISBN: 978-974-9822-83-8

Organizations

กรมพัฒนาพลังงานทดแทนและอนุรักษ์พลังงาน กระทรวงพลังงาน
เป็นหน่วยงานที่รับผิดชอบในการส่งเสริมประสิทธิภาพการใช้พลังงาน กำกับการอนุรักษ์พลังงาน จัดหาแหล่งพลังงาน พัฒนาทางเลือกการใช้พลังงานแบบผสมผสาน และเผยแพร่เทคโนโลยีด้านพลังงานอย่างเป็นระบบต่อเนื่อง
ข้อมูลติดต่อ: เลขที่ 17 ถนนพระรามที่ 1 เขตปทุมวัน กรุงเทพมหานคร 10330
โทรศัพท์: 0-2223-2593-9, 0-2222-4102-9
โทรสาร: 0-2225-3785
สถาบันวิจัยพลังงาน จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย
เป็นหน่วยงานที่เน้นความสำคัญของงานวิจัย การเรียนการสอน และงานบริการทางวิชาการ ดำเนินการกิจกรรมด้านวิจัยเชิงนโยบาย และบริการทางวิชาการแก่สาธารณะในด้านพลังงาน
ข้อมูลติดต่อ: อาคารสถาบัน 3 ชั้น 12 ถ.พญาไท แขวงวังใหม่ เขตปทุมวัน กทม. 10330
โทรศัพท์: 02-218-8096-7
Email: eri@chula.ac.th

Researcher / Faculty / Person as Information Source

ดร.วัฒนา รติสมิทธ์
นักวิจัยของสถาบันวิจัยพลังงาน จุฬาฯ
ความเชี่ยวชาญ: ด้านพลังงานทดแทน พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ และการศึกษานโยบาย และการวางแผนพลังงานของประเทศ และฐานข้อมูลด้านพลังงาน
โทรศัพท์: 02-218-8090
Email: wattana@eri.chula.ac.th
อาจารย์ ดร.ณัฏฐพล ภู่ตระกูลโชติ
อาจารย์ประจำคณะวิทยาศาสตร์ ภาควิชาเคมีเทคนิค จุฬาฯ
Research interests: energy conversion, alternative energy, renewable energy, photovoltaic devices, photoelectrochemistry, dye-sensitized solar cells
โทรศัพท์: 02-218-7521
Email: nuttapol.p@chula.ac.th

Web Sites / Web Pages

energypedia
แพลทฟอร์มสำหรับการแลกเปลี่ยนความรู้เรื่องพลังงานหมุนเวียนและการใช้พลังงานในประเทศกำลังพัฒนา
reegle
เข้าถึงสารสนเทศคุณภาพสูงเกี่ยวกับพลังงานหมุนเวียน และการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศ เช่น ประวัติโดยย่อของพลังงานของประเทศ การค้นหาข้อมูลพลังงานสะอาด เป็นต้น
REN21
ให้ข้อมูลด้านพลังงานหมุนเวียน รวมถึงพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ ของประเทศต่าง ๆ ทั่วโลก นอกจากนี้ยังสามารถค้นหาข้อมูลจากแผนที่โลกได้ที่หน้า Renewable Interactive Map (อยู่ที่หัวข้อ REN21 Activities)
ScienceDaily Resource contains video
ข่าวและวิดีโอเกี่ยวกับวิทยาศาสตร์ สุขภาพ สิ่งแวดล้อม เทคโนโลยี และอื่น ๆ จากบริการข่าวและมหาวิทยาลัยชั้นนำ วารสารทางวิทยาศาสตร์ และองค์กรวิจัย

Videos

DIY Solar Energy Generator! Resource contains video
แสดงการทดลองการทำเครื่องกำเนิดไฟฟ้าจากพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์เอง
Energy 101: Solar Power Resource contains video
การ์ตูนอนิเมชันเกี่ยวกับเทคโนโลยีกำลังแสงอาทิตย์
GREENPOWERSCINCE Resource contains video
โฮมเพจวิดีโอเกี่ยวกับการใช้ประโยชน์จากกำลังแสงอาทิตย์แบบไม่ยาก จากเว็บไซต์ http://greenpowerscience.com/
Solar Energy Resource contains video
อธิบายเรื่องพลังงานแสงอาทิตย์โดย SciShow